Raw Material Processing into Ingredients
Ingredients are assessed for energy requirements of processing raw materials into ingredients. For example, wheat flour would have all stages of milling energy requirements assessed including washing, grinding, sorting, and sifting (and bleaching when applicable). Excluded from the processing energy value are overhead operations, employee transportation, and manufacturing of the equipment. HowGood then uses the grid mix at the processing location to calculate the associated emissions due to the ingredient processing. HowGood sources these values from papers and reports, LCAs and technoeconomic assessments.
In many cases, as it is with some extracts, or supplements, multiple parts of the processing have been accounted for where industry standards can be applied (ex: for safflower extract applies alcohol solvent extraction/spray drying process). We account for each part of the processing where that information is provided or where we can safely make standard processing assumptions. Where this information is not available or assumptions cannot be safely made, and an ingredient has multiple processing types associated, the most energy intensive processing type is used.
We use region grid mix values to determine how much kg CO2e is emitted per unit of energy. We have grid mix values for US states and most countries and are developing methodology to calculate them for other compound regions (sub-national and supra-national).
HowGood has conducted extensive research into the types of processing that are associated with different types of ingredients. This enables us to calculate biogenic CO2 emissions from biofuel combustion associated with any processing or manufacturing machinery used to produce an ingredient. This aligns with SBTi, GRI and CDP reporting requirements and industry best practices, which request information relating to biomass/biofuels.
HowGood’s Scope 3 Report includes a line item separating biogenic emissions from your overall Scope 3 (Category 1) emissions.