To calculate GHGs associated with product manufacturing, HowGood uses the product type/sales category and location of the manufacturing facility. Products are grouped into categories based on similar manufacturing processes. Customers can choose the manufacturing type which best describes their product, or HowGood can make a reasonable assumption based on the sales category.
The energy needs of each process or subprocess associated with the production line is collected/estimated from energy or environmental assessments and life cycle inventories as MJ/kg product per fuel type. They can include refrigeration and lighting but exclude overhead operations, employee transportation, and manufacturing of the equipment. We base our estimates on the manufacturing category of the product (frozen entree, cold case milk, chips & snacks, juice beverages, etc). For example, the manufacturing energy required to make yogurt or kefir would include mixing of ingredients (fruit, etc), culture/fermentation process, sterilization of equipment, sterilization of jar/vessel, heat sealing process, and refrigeration.
HowGood then uses the total energy consumption and the carbon intensity of electricity at the manufacturing location and/or emissions factors of the other fuels to calculate the associated emissions due to the product manufacturing.
When customers have conducted product LCAs and can provide manufacturing energy data with enough granularity to map to our inclusions and exclusions, we can ingest that data and create a customer and product(s) specific manufacturing type.
Waste is excluded from manufacturing by default, however customers can input their ingredient data as the amount of ingredient needed to produce 100 kg of product to account for waste if they wish. See Impact accounting for products where ingredients outweigh the final product for more information on how to do this.
See the last paragraph in Upstream Processing for limitations and planned changes.